The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in radiology and radiation oncology has become a hot topic in recent years, opening up a world of possibilities for automation, precision medicine, and changing roles for human medical practitioners. Along with the opportunities of medical AI, several ethical dilemmas arise that impact the development and implementation of these tools; this means it is critical for medical physicists to have a solid understanding of fundamental bioethics principles and how to apply them in research and clinical practice.
In this session, we present a fundamental moral framework and its underlying principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. We overview current and emerging applications of AI in radiology and radiation oncology along with the ethical dilemmas that arise from these applications. In order to demonstrate how basic ethical principles can guide ethical decision-making for scientists, medical practitioners, and other stakeholders in medical AI, we then examine several of these dilemmas in greater detail. First, we consider dilemmas related to the development of AI tools in radiology and radiation oncology. Second, we consider dilemmas related to the implementation of AI tools in radiology and radiation oncology. These include concerns such as bias in datasets, just distribution of resources on a global scale, and the role of human practitioners.
Attendees should be able to use this moral engagement as an example of how they can approach ethical dilemmas that arise when developing or implementing AI tools, or indeed any new technology, for use in medicine.
1. List fundamental ethical principles widely used in medical research and practice
2. Examine several ethical dilemmas arising from the use of AI in Radiology and Radiation Oncology
3. Apply fundamental ethical principles toward answering moral dilemmas in the development and implementation of medical AI